The Good, the Bad, and the Risky: Can Birds Be Incorporated as Biological Control Agents into Integrated Pest Management Programs?

Some bird species often benefit farmers by suppressing invertebrate crop pests, yet birds are rarely considered in integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. This is likely because some bird species pose risks to farmers through crop damage, intraguild predation, and food safety concerns. Nonetheless, the benefits of some bird species on crop production are often substantial. Therefore, understanding when birds are most likely to enhance crop production (and when they are most likely to depress it) is crucial for designing effective IPM strategies.

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